Friday, January 14, 2011

Communication Technologies in Building Automation

Logic control is dedicated to systems without dynamics. Formerly this application class was not so common, but is still increasing to cheaper devices. Typical applications are:
• Security systems, remote monitoring, personal identification, intrusion detection.
• Alarming, inventory notification, fire alarms, equipment failure alarms.
• Electrical device interconnection, joint remote controllers for more electrical devices.
• Remote control, commanding devices using web services or SMS.

These applications are usually implemented as event drive state machines. Therefore, soft real time communication is suitable. Seeing the fact that the number of devices grows and they are deployed around the house, great attention of wireless technologies developers is attracted.

Supervisory control is located on the top of the previous. The supervisory control’s main task is scheduling, set point manipulation. The supervisory control objective is the coordination of related controls and optimization of energy and effort. The communication in supervisory control does not tend to degrade with latencies. The main requirement is sufficient storing space and intelligent applications capable of the required functions.

There have been many attempts to create a common communication technology which would be able to cover a substantial part of communication in buildings. The approaches significantly differ. Some of them are targeted to huge enterprise buildings. The most important topic is the coordination of the HVAC systems. The heating, air conditioning, the windows shutter positioning are fully synchronized. The nodes number reaches dozens of thousands. The devices are predominantly numerous and homogeneous.

The other approach is targeted to automation of home devices. This encapsulates HVAC system, door bells, security, remote controllers, DECT phone, etc. these devices are less numerous, but they are very heterogeneous.

European Installation Bus (BIB)
BIB is the leading system for electrical installation networking in the world. The bus interconnects the system and devices into an economical system optimally adapted to specific requirements. The physical media can proprietary X10, 24V, radio and Ethernet. This technology is supporting OPC interfacing.

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